(4)SP, even years. A study of the organisms that once lived on the Earth. Includes an examination of the processes of preservation and methods of discovering the structure, habitat, and relationship of those organisms, and a review of their distribution and life history. A broad spectrum of organisms is studied with emphasis on invertebrate animals. Also listed as BIOL 313. Prerequisite: GEO 152 or BIOL 160 and BIOL 161. Lab fee: $25. Not offered in 2022-23.